Browse documents by date

  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /var/www/coeducation/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 1118.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_field::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false) in /var/www/coeducation/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_field.inc on line 1148.
  • strict warning: Declaration of content_handler_field::element_type() should be compatible with views_handler_field::element_type($none_supported = false, $default_empty = false, $inline = false) in /var/www/coeducation/sites/all/modules/cck/includes/views/handlers/content_handler_field.inc on line 229.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_argument::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/coeducation/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_argument.inc on line 917.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_argument::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false) in /var/www/coeducation/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_argument.inc on line 917.
  • strict warning: Declaration of date_api_argument_handler::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler_argument::options_validate(&$form, &$form_state) in /var/www/coeducation/sites/all/modules/date/includes/date_api_argument_handler.inc on line 398.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_sort::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/coeducation/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc on line 165.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_sort::options_submit() should be compatible with views_handler::options_submit($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/coeducation/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc on line 165.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_sort::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false) in /var/www/coeducation/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc on line 165.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/coeducation/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 599.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false) in /var/www/coeducation/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 599.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_query::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_submit($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/coeducation/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_query.inc on line 181.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_style_default::options() should be compatible with views_object::options() in /var/www/coeducation/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_style_default.inc on line 24.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_row::options_validate() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_validate(&$form, &$form_state) in /var/www/coeducation/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_row.inc on line 136.

Date: 1894

A year after the death of Emma V. Harry's sister, Angella Harry, she writes a poem about her sister in the Microcosm. Titled "The Vale of Rest", Emma describes the place "where our fair Angella sleeps" as well as her speculations on what heaven must be like. This is also the second poem Emma has printed in the 1894 Microcosm.

The Class of 1894 in the 1894 Microcosm wrote about their history. This included a paragraph on the women who attend Dickinson College. It states, "Our especial pride is in the loveliness of our ladies, not only of '94, but of Carlisle as well." The paragraph also discussed the appeal of female classmates that if "the young men of our Class do not fall in love with them, they will be a dishonor to their sex and to the grand old College which they represent."

In the 1894 Microcosm, the class of 1895 shares its experiences from the year, including co-education. The page states from the perspective of the male students that, "conscious of the strength of our thirty-five stalwart men, toned by the graces of our five co-eds, we determined to live according to our own ideals and the edicts of the Faculty." This brief statement showed that the women's presence at the college influenced some of the behavior of the male students in a positive way.

Emma V. Harry was one of the first women to have their literary works printed in the Microcosm. Her poem, "The Old College Bell", is printed amongst fellow male classmates' works.

Joseph Alexander Bennett (Class of 1894), wrote his commencement oration on the subject of co-education. He argues that instead of helping society, coeducation degrades it.

Date: 1895

A picture of the junior class of 1896 is shown in the 1895 Microcosm. In the photograph it includes the images of the five women of the class, Mary L. Billings, Anna E. Isenberg, Frances C. Logan, Mary Thompson and Mary Wilcox. Under the class officers, Mary Thompson is listed as being the class poetess. There is also a section included in the Microcosm that lists some fun facts about the junior class. For Mary Billings it lists that she is only 16, her favorite pastime is rowing and that in the future she wants to become a teacher.

The graduating class of 1895 included a picture alongside the usual class history page. This picture includes the images of the five women of the class who are Emma V. Harry, Lulu F. Allabach, Elizabeth Root, Amy Fisher, and Margaret A. Line. As class officers, Elizabeth T. Root was the secretary, Lulu F. Allabach was the treasurer and Emma V. Harry was the class poet.

Writers in the 1895 Microcosm make fun of various students in a humorous section titled "Appropriate Gift Books". In this section they "recommend" certain book titles appropriate to each person. Two female students are included in this jesting, a Miss Root, who was recommended to be gifted 'Little Women' and a Miss Horn, who was recommended 'Between Two Loves'. Some of the other book titles given to the male students poke fun at women and relationships.

The Class of 1896 writes in their class history about the death of their fellow female classmate, Angella E. Harry. The classmates kindly remember Angella as "one of our brightest and most faithful members...her quiet enthusiasm and love of learning were shown in her persistent efforts to do her work in spite of physical weakness and depressing influences."

In the 1896 class history there is an included section to remember some of their fellow classmates, including a few women. The loss of Angella E. Harry is mentioned right away. They speak kindly of her presence on campus stating that "she still abides in our memories as a true lady and a model student. Her worth while among us could not but impress us all." Then they also mention two female students gone on to other colleges. The section states that an "A. R.

The men of the class of 1898 humorously lament in their class history about the lack of co-eds. The Microcosm states that the men were worried greatly because "'98 had no co-eds. The mere thought was at first unbearable." The male students continue on their lament of co-eds that "what would a class do without any of the dear ones to keep order in class meetings, fill the undesirable offices, soften the hearts of the Profs. by those bewitching smiles of which only Dickinson co-eds are capable or guilty (which ?), and the various other trifles which only the girls can do."

Date: January 1895

In the "Local" section of the Dickinsonian, this somewhat lengthy note indicates that Prof. Fletcher Durell, chair of mathematics and astronomy, has left to take a position at Woman's College of Baltimore. "The prospective position is a much more remunerative one from a financial point of view, while he will also have the library advantages dear to every scholar," notes the anonymous author.

Brief note in Dickinsonian appears at the bottom of the page, below the YMCA Notes: "Women have been tolerated for several years past in German Universities solely through the good-will of professors. Now the bars are to be formally taken down and women are to be given all the privileges of men."

Date: February 1895

Brief historical note in the Local section of the Dickinsonian: "In 1888 the Freshman class divided over the question of allowing co-eds in their class organization."

Brief note in Dickinsonian under Exchanges: "An article in January's Wellesley Magazine on 'The Decadence of the Republican Party,' shows what a potent factor the college woman is destined to become in our political world. The writer blends fact and fiction with the adaptability of a genius."

Date: March 1895

Brief note in the Local section of the Dickinsonian: "Dr. Reed, Prof. Durell, and Mrs. Biddle, wife of Judge Biddle, acted as judges in the Inter-Society Debate at the Indian School. Question was, Resolved, 'That women have done more for the advancement of humanity than men.' The affirmative won."

Quoted note in Dickinsonian from Vassar College on treatment of pretty girls.

Brief item in Dickinsonian under YMCA Notes about Dr. Reed's lecture on "The New Woman" being successful.

Brief note in Dickinsonian under section on Other Colleges: "Swarthmore will be represented at the intercollegiate oratorical union by a woman."

Date: October 1895

Miss Martha Barbour was hired as an instructor in physical culture (read, P.E.) for the female students at Dickinson. She was a graduate of the Boston School of Oratory and was not an alumna.

Date: December 1895

This five stanza poem by W.P.S. demonstrates his sadness when Miss Lillian Sara Marvel, the first female law student at the College, does not return his advances.
"Alas! the world has gone away / Since Lillian entered college, / For she has grown so learned, I / Oft tremble at her wonderous  knowledge. / When'er I dare to woo her now / She frowns that I should so annoy her , / And then proclaims, with lofty brow, / Her mission is to be a lawyer."

Date: 1896

In 1896 the first Y.W.C.A. was formed in Carlisle in addition to the Y.M.C.A. Mary S. Dunn, the State Secretary of the Y.W.C.A., visited Carlisle in 1895 and began organizing the association. The Y.W.C.A. included in its membership all the ladies of the college and preparatory school, as well as some of the alumnae. Ladies from the school that were chosen to run it were Mary Thompson as president, Frances Logan as Vice-President, Anna Isenberg as Corresponding Secretary, Grace Vale as Treasurer, and Helen R. Horn as Recording Secretary.

    On one of the first pages of the 1896 Microcosm is a picture of the Ladies' Hall, located somewhere on West Pomfret Street in Carlisle. It was purchased by President George E. Reed on May 16, 1893 for $5,000 from Samuel M. Hepburn . Originally it was used to house a local fraternity, Alpha Zeta Phi, but then in 1895 it was turned into a residence for women. The building was called "Ladies' Hall" until February 7, 1905, when it was renamed in honor of John Zacharias Lloyd. He was a recently deceased Methodist clergyman and trustee who bequeathed $10,000 to the College.

Emma V. Harry writes a memorium in honor of another sister of hers, Lydia Celestia Harry, who died May 2, 1895 in Carlisle. She had entered Dickinson's preparatory school in 1893 and would have graduated with the class of 1897. Angella Harry was another sister of Emma Harry who had died in 1893 at Carlisle.

In the 1896 Microcosm two women from the class of 1895 were initiated into the Phi Beta Kappa Society. Emma V. Harry and Amy Fisher were two of the first women initiated in this fraternity based on overall academic excellence. Membership to this fraternity was determined by the resident members of the chapter.

In the 1896 Microcosm, a student writes a poem about what is the Dickinson co-ed. This poem pokes fun at the women who study at Dickinson, and about how much they study. The author teases that the co-eds are well-versed in about every single type of subject imaginable, and yet those subjects are only a taste of everything they study at Dickinson.

The 1896 Microcosm tried to predict what the future would be like in 1921, even though these predictions are not without some teasing of the co-eds. Among the "advancements of the college during the past year" apparently the female students will have outnumbered the male students. The essay pokes further fun at the females by declaring, "Who would have dreamed of this twenty-five years ago?

This association promoted Co-Education. It demanded that every member call on the Ladies Hall twice a week and would ensure that doors would be opened for female students, as well as providing them with escorts.

Date: January 1896

Miss Amy Fisher, class of 1895, was the first "regular lady teacher" associated with "this historic old institution." She had been in charge of the study halls at the Prep School, but in Spring 1896 began to teach regular classes at Dickinson. The rest of this entry in the Dickinsonian lauds the College on its liberal views:

Date: February 28, 1896

The Dickinsonian suggests a "Woman's Page" in order for Dickinson to be truly co-educational, and also since female students excel!

Date: November 1896

The November 1896 Dickinsonian mentions in the 'Alumni' section the goings-on of Elizabeth Bender '88. After graduating from Dickinson, she taught at the Carlisle Indian School and then decided to leave the country in 1890. Elizabeth Bender traveled to Japan in order to work for the Women's Foreign Missionary Society and is now the principal of the Girls' High School in Awoyama, Tokio. Miss Bender is mentioned as being "one of the first ladies to receive a diploma from Dickinson...capturing the honors of her class."

Date: 1897

The 1897 Microcosm displays another women's sorority on campus, Gamma Zeta. It was a local sorority founded in 1896 and this is the only time it appears in Dickinson College's records. Its members are as follows: Anna M. Geiger and Helen R. Horn from the class of 1897, Marie E. Lloyd from the class of 1898, Bertha Clough and Lucia C. Hargis from the class of 1899, and finally Jessie W. Hargis from the class of 1900.

The Harman Literary Society was first conceptualized on October 21, 1896 by the ladies of Dickinson College. The female students first met in Denny Hall for the purpose of organizing a literary society and were allowed to make a temporary one. The society is named after Dr. Henry Harman, a professor of Greek and Hebrew who was also a member of the Class of 1848. Dr. Harman was known as a staunch opponent of coeducation, but the Professor did give his approval for use of his name. On November 11, 1896 the committee was formed and their constitution formally adopted.

Around the time that the Harman Literary Society was being created at the college, the Preparatory School also formed their own literary society. The society, named Sigma Epsilon Literary Society, included all female students. The officers were President M. Lou Sheets, Vice-President Ruth D. Barrett, Secretary Emma S. Liggett, Treasurer Mary C. Gerber, and Critic E. Maud Soper. The other members include Emma Frances Reeme, Mary C. Love, Helen Whiting, Emma F. Leidigh, Gertrude L. Super, Edith M. Super, and Dora M. Bell.

The Y. W. C. A. was founded in 1895, and after two years of running, the organization is still going strong. To keep this organization afloat, they have sent their delegates to State Conventions and attend regular meetings with the Y. M. C. A. of the College. At this point, the membership was still increasing and it was generally felt that it "insures a pleasantness" the college life.

This photo depicts three female Dickinsonians including Mabel Geiger, '97 (far left). Mabel holds a sign that reads "She Wasn't In It."

Thie photograph depicts a group of female and male Dickinsonians sitting for a formal protrait. Standing in the back is Mabel Geiger, class of 1897.

This photograph depicts three female Dickinsonians: Helen Harn (left), Ruth Miles (middle), and Mabel Geiger (right). Geiger entitled this picture "Dickinson Days."

This photograph depicts three female Dickinsonians: Helen Harn (left),
Ruth Miles (middle), and Mabel Geiger (right). Geiger entitled this
picture "Dickinson Days II."

This photograph depicts three female Dickinsonians: Ruth Miles (left), Helen Harn (middle), and Mabel Geiger (right). Geiger entitled this
picture "Dickinson Days III."

In her oration "The Badge of the American Red Cross," Anne E. Miles analyzed the founding and purpose of the Red Cross in America. She primarily discussed Clara Barton's role in the founding and the way in which the Red Cross transformed American philanthropy from personal donations to a more collective and organized model of giving.

In the History of the Sophomore Class of 1899, they mention their fellow female students as adding a certain quality to the class. The class of '99 felt that theirs would be the class to surpass "all previous ones in number, strength and manliness." Remembering the "co-eds," they then realized that they should "change that quality to womanliness." The writer remarks that about one-third of the sophomore class is comprised of women and they had even "taken possession" of the class.

The 1897 Microcosm shows that even more women are being initiated in the Phi Beta Kappa Society. Based on their scholarly merits, Mary L. Billings, Mary A. Wilcox, and Anna E. Isenberg were inducted into the society.

The author of this sonnet decided to dedicate it to the female students at Dickinson. Instead of praising their intelligence or hard-work in this sonnet, rather he decides to praise their physical attributes. He comments upon their "fairer brows" and "enchanting movements" rather than their accomplishments as students.

Hattie Spangler Shelley wrote this poem to try to make men and women think about if their roles were reversed. Men should "get to the kitchen and cook!" instead of having "politics aching [their] brain." This is because it is "the new woman's hour to reign" and take over the male lifestyle. The poem pretty much describes how life would be like if the man was performing all of the "standard" female roles and if the women in turn had their roles. The woman in the poem now "buys fishing tackle and books" instead of managing the household.

The Microcosm pokes fun at the Junior Class by publishing their "statistics." By discussing each member's "future occupation," "how they spend their nights," and "chief characteristics," they make fun of each individual. One of the main targets was, of course, the only class co-ed, Marie E. Lloyd. Her "statistics" state that her future occupation was to be President of the United States, obviously making fun of her female status in society. Marie also apparently spends her night "entertaining the boys" with her chief characteristic being "heart breaking."

For the past few years, the Microcosm had published a section with bogus definitions of various words or phrases from the college life. This time they decided to define the word, "co-ed." In the Microcosm they defined a "co-ed" as a "female student at college, so called because most of her beauty is artificial." This statement, of course, would have caused quite a stir on campus, so a side note is included. The "N.B." affirms that, "this meaning has become obsolete since the present ladies have entered college."

Date: 1898

In his senior Oraton "The Influence of Women in History" Charles Stewart Davison discussed women's role in history. Though often not included in history books, he argued that women greatly influenced events in history. He cites such women as Eve, Catherine de Medici, and Joan of Arc. He concluded his oration and wrote that "Such is a hasty glance at the influence of woman in the past.  If she advances to the position she should rightly hold, the future will see her occupying a station of still higher honor and influence."

The history of the senior class of 1898 in the Microcosm discussed a social event thrown by the female students at Dickinson. On October 12, 1897 these females students provided an "evening of intense social enjoyment" in their dormitory. All sorts of entertainments ensued, and that the "music was in abundance". It was also noted that the "girls were at their best that night," and that the College President's wife and other notable townspeople graced the event with their prescence.

In the history of the sophomore class in 1898, the historian decided to comment upon the female sophomores. The historian noted that the number of female students had gone down since freshman year, but the "quality of the goods is still away above par." It is further commented upon that the Dickinson College female students are so great that they never faint from dissecting frogs or "never even budge when a mouse gets astray in the classroom." From Microcosms past, these class histories are now writing more about their female "co-ed" students than ever before.