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Date: April 1, 1920

In response to President Morgan's letter of March 24, 1920 regarding discrimination against female faculty, F. Louise Nardin advised Dickinson College to reapply for admission to the Association of Collegeiate Alumnae once the College improves conditions for existing female faculty and hires more female faculty. She explained that "It seems to me that present attitudes of the College toward women in the faculty is such as to indicates that Dickinson College should become plainly eligible before much time has passed."

Date: April 4, 1920

In a letter dated April 4, 1920, President Morgan responded to F. Louise Nardin's letter of April 1st. President Morgan wrote that he was confused and a bit offended because Nardin implied that once Dickinson stoped discriminating against female faculty, they could reapply to the association.  He wrote that once Dickinson could be "fairly considered" for admission he would provide her with the information needed.

Date: April 6, 1920

In a letter to Dean Meredith dated April 6, 1920, President Morgan informed the Dean of Women that many female students have been absent from gym class. He wrote that "many of the young women are evading physical exercise. Professor Sellers, for the Absence Committee, says that he gets altogether too many excuses for sickness, but in most cases he feels some hesitation about probing too closely." Thus, President Morgan decided that excuses for gym class must be approved by Dean Meredith before being accepted.

Date: April 18, 1920

In response to President Morgan's letter of April 4, 1920, F. Louise Nardin of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae appologized for any misunderstanding the President Morgan may have had. She argues that she was in no way insinuating that Dickinson College discriminated against female faculty. It was simply a misunderstanding. She then went on to explain why it is so important for coed and women's institutions to have female faculty. Nardin wrote "It is not that we are determined to create a market for the services of women who have their higher degrees.

Date: September 1920

Under the Women's Student Senate, a separate organization from student senate that governed male students, the Women's Student Government Association of Dickinson College sought to "enact and enforce laws in accordance with the agreement between the official administration of Dickinson College and the women students of Dickinson and to transact any business pertaining thereto." This constitution, printed in the student handbook of 1920, included information on membership, meetings, the executive, lesgislative, and judicial departments, dues, amendment rules and by-laws.

Date: September 29, 1920

In his letter dated September 29, 1920, President Morgan responded to a complaint mad by S. Louise de Vilaine, instructor of French and House Mother at Metzger Hall. According to the letter, de Vilaine believed President Morgan's decision to not promote her to a a full professor was unfair. President Morgan took offense to this and told de Vilaine to remain calm and explained his stance.

Date: October 25, 1920

The minutes from the Women's Student Senate meeting on October 25, 1920 discuss issues brought to the association. One of these issues was the possibility of having a female cheerleader and what they should do about the matter. Another issue brought forth was the permission to allow females to march to games as a body. No resolution on either of these issues was documented in the minutes.

Date: January 13, 1921

On January 13, 1921, Dickinson alumna Helen L. Witmer wrote to President Henry Morgan requesting information pertaining to Dickinson's relationship with the Association for Collegiate Alumnae (ACA). According to Witmer, a women's college club was recently formed in Lancaster, PA. However, only women who attended institutions affiliated with the ACA were permitted to join the association. Witmer was told the Dickinson College was not allowed to to join the ACA because the school does not hire female faculty members.

Date: January 15, 1921

In a previous letter (dated January 13, 1921) to President Morgan, Helen Witmer asked for information pertaining to Dickinson College's relationship with the Association of Collegiate Alumnae (ACA). Witmer was told that Dickinson College was not a member of the ACA due to the lack of women within its faculty. On January 15, 1921, President Morgan responded to Witmer's letter and explained that he had applied for membership and found that "its first interest the securing of faculty positions for women in colleges.

Date: February 23, 1921

Written from Rachel Pflaum of the Bureau of Occupations for Trained Women in Philadelphia in response to Miss Margaret Eslinger's request for information, this letter explains the process of becoming a member. In the post script, it indicates that Miss Eslinger had been looking for a position at hotels or summer resorts. The Bureau suggests that she apply directly to those hotels. If she needs any further help, she will need to register and have an interview. This sort of placement service for women appears to help to assist educated women find employment.

Date: March 29, 1921

Miss Eslinger received notice of a job offer from Girard College as an "experienced substitute dietitian" for the summer of 1921. She would assist 500-600 boys and would be paid $137.50 for 1 month's work. $137.50 dollars in 1921 had roughly the same buying power as $1638 in 2009. There is no information in the scrapbook that implies that Miss Eslinger took the job for the receipt stub at the bottom, which notifies the Bureau of Occupations for Trained Women that the job offer had been accepted or denied, is still attached.

Date: April 4, 1921

On April 4th, 1921, a special meeting was called for the resignation of the president of the Student Senate and was documented in the Women's Student Senate minutes. At this special meeting, the Dean of Women, Josephine Meredith, attended and explained that "certain matters of discipline [were] under consideration" for the president of the Student Senate. The president of the Student Senate's resignation letter was read at the meeting in order to make the resignation finalized.

Date: April 22. 1921

This document lists the names and addresses of thirty women who lived in Metzger Hall in 1921-1922.

Date: July 19, 1921

This document lists the last  names and hometowns of 30 women who lived in Metzger Hall. The women come from New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware.

Date: September 1921-22

The constitution and by-laws of the Women's Athletic Association of Dickinson College are printed in the 1921-22 student handbook. The constitution details rules concerning membership, officers and their obligations to the positions they hold. Virginia Watts served as president for the organization and was responsible for meetings, appointing committees, and acting as a liason to "college authorities to promote athletics." Helen Conklin was Vice-president, Frances Smith served as secretary, Mary Cohick as Treasurer, Helen Strayer as hiking captain, and Helen Wehrle as hiking manager.

Date: September 1921

The Pan-Hellenic council was made up of Pi Beta Phi, Chi Omega, and Phi Mu sororities. The constitution, printed in the 1921 student handbook, details its purpose, officers, and regulations on voting and amending the constitution. According to the constitution, the purpose of the Pan-Hellenic council was to:

  • fix the date of pledge day
  • regulate the rules for rushing
  • regulate any other matters of inter-fraternity interest
  • cooperate with college authorities in questions of general college interest

Under the Women's Student Senate, a separate organization from student
senate that governed male students, the Women's Student Government
Association of Dickinson College sought to "enact and enforce laws in
accordance with the agreement between the official administration of
Dickinson College and the women students of Dickinson and to transact
any business pertaining thereto." This constitution, printed in the
student handbook of 1921-22, included information on membership, meetings,
the executive, lesgislative, and judicial departments, dues, amendment

Date: October 27, 1921

In a letter dated October 27, 1921, Gertrude Martin, the Executive Secretary of the American Association of University Women, wrote to President Morgan regarding Dickinson College's membership application to the AAUW. Martin apologizes for the delay and asks President Morgan to fill out and return a survey she enclosed. The application will then go before committee. ..

Date: November 1, 1921

In response to Gertrud Martin's letter dated October 27, 1921, President Morgan sent Martin a brief letter explaining what was enclosed as well as a questionnaire addenda. The addenda contains information regarding female faculty members at Dickinson College in the 1920s. According to Morgan, at this point there were three female faculty members: Louise d. Vilaine (Associate Professor of Romance Languages), Josephine Brunyate Meredith (Dean of Women and Associate Professor of English), and Hazel J. Bullock (Associate Professor of Romance Languages).

Date: November 7, 1921

On November 7, 1921 the minutes for the Women's Student Senate were documented and the idea of a joint Senate was brought forth. Margaret Eslinger was appointed the chairman of a committee that would talk to President Morgan about joining the women's Student Senate with the men's. No conclusion to the joint senate idea was mentioned in these minutes.

Date: December 21, 1922

This document describes S. Louise de Vilain's educational training. According to the document, de Vilaine studied in France and Germany. In 1882, she received her A. M. at Karlsruhe, State of Baden, Germany. 

Date: March 1, 1922

In a letter dated March 1, 1922, Mary Dubson writes on behalf of the Women's Student Government to thank President Morgan for improvements to Metzger Hall and Denny Hall. Dubson wrote that President Morgan's "kindness and interest" was much appreciated.

Date: March 9, 1922

The Inter-Society Debate took place on March 9, 1922 between the Harman Society (a female society created in 1896) and the McIntyre Society (also for women, founded in 1921- It appears to have only been active in 1921) at Bosler Hall. It discussed the enactment of a constitutional amendment for the protection of women against political, legal or civil discrimination due to their sex. Margaret Eslinger (this document came from her personal scrapbook of her Dickinson years) assisted Kathryn Smith '24 on the negative side of the argument.

Date: April 7, 1922

In a letter dated April 7, 1922, Eleanor Robinson (Illinois Women's Press Association) wrote to President James H. Morgan in reference to the marriage and divorce rates of female graduates of Dickinson College. Robinson explained that she knew many college women who were married and did not know a single college woman who was a divorcee. She argued, "Judging then from my own acquaintance, it seems to me that college women make more successful wives and mothers than less educated women."She then went on to explain her argument.

Date: April 13, 1922

In a previous letter dated April 7, 1922, Eleanore Robinson, a reporter from Chicago, wrote President Morgan in reference to the marriage and divorce rates of female Dickinson Graduates. Robinson argued that college-educated women make better wives and mothers than women who do not attend college. On April 13, 1922, President Morgan responded to Robinson's letter. He agreed that educated women make better wives and mothers.

Date: September 1922-23

According the the 1922-23 student handbook, published by the college's Christian organizations, two women's debating teams were formed in 1921. After competitive try-outs, one team from the Harman Literary Society and one team from the McIntyre Literary Society were selected as the two teams to represent the school. The Harmon debating team included: Esther Reigel, Laura High, Elizabeth McCrea,  and Eleanor Klemm. Members of the McIntyre debate team were, Elizabeth DeMaris, Kathryn Smith, Margaret Eslinger, and Mary Garland.

Included in the student handbook of 1922-23, are a list of five rules that freshmen women of the college must abide by. Rules included concerned proper college attire, repsect to upperclassmen, obedience, and relations with men. For example, according to the handbook, during the first six weeks of the semester women were not allowed to walk with men around campus and Denny Hall. The rules appear to be provided by the Women's Student Government Association.

A list of seven suggestions to freshmen women is included in the student handbook of 1922-23. Following the list of mandated rules for freshmen women, suggestions regarding academic success, religion, college spirit, social life, campus/dorm room aesthetics, community life, and athletics are given to every freshman woman. Although these "suggestions" were not enforced, they were highly stressed to freshmen women to follow. The suggestions to freshmen women appear to have been endorsed by the Women's Student Government Association of Dickinson College.

Date: September 1922

In the 1922 constitution and by-laws of the Women's Student Government Association, printed in the student handbook, is the inclusion of a "motto." The motto, "good morals and good behavior" is a new addition to the constitution since its initial creation in 1921. The rest of the constitution contains information on membership, meetings, the executive, lesgislative, and judicial departments, dues, amendment rules and by-laws.

In two notes written to Miss Margaret Eslinger from the President and Vice President of the Young Womens' Christian Association, Betty (Elizabeth) Bucke '23 and Betty (Mary Elizabeth) Chambers '24, they request Eslinger's help by being a "big sister" to a freshman named Mary Clemens and to "Be the Best Big Sister you Can Be." Miss Bucke states that "We want to work not for our Little Sister, but with her."

Date: September 23, 1922

The September 23, 1922 Dickinsonian reported that Josephine Meredith, Dean of Women, was visiting family in Boston when a thief tried to snatch her purse from her while she was walking down the street.  According to one Boston newspaper account:

Date: September 25, 1922

The September 25, 1922 minutes from the Women's Student Senate discussed various affairs, one particularly emphasized was the case of female freshmen rules. It was decided that freshmen women had to wear arm bands to breakfast and on their coats. Failure to comply with this rule caused the creation of the "freshman rule", as one woman learned. She had been a freshman at a previous college and then came here, refusing to wear her arm band.

Date: October 2, 1922

On October 2, 1922 the minutes to the Women's Student Senate were recorded and there was more discussion on rules for freshmen women. On the previous case of a student disobeying the rule of not wearing her freshman arm band, the senate decided not to punish her on the grounds that she was a freshman previously at Wilson College. Punishments for freshmen women who violate their rules were discussed and determined at the meeting. For the girls who live at Metzger Hall, they "should make beds" and that the "Day Students should wash the blackboards at Denny."

Date: November 12, 1922

In her letter to President Morgan dated November 12, 1922, Helen Witmer describes her experiences as a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Witmer was struck by the sheer size of the University and asserted that there were 30,000 people at the homecoming football game alone. Though she was impressed, Witmer explained that she would "still prefer to see an F&M v. Dickinson game."

Date: December 19, 1922

In a letter to F. Louise Nardin of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, President Morgan recounts the early history of women at Dickinson College. He wrote that "Perhaps in truth I ought to say that they are better treated. They are better cared for than men, and there is no disposition to have this changed."

Date: 1923

Founded in 1921, the McIntire Literary Society was first depicted in the Microcosm in 1923. Mary Garland, Elizabeth Nolte, Olivette Yeingst, and Anna Hoke served as officers during the 1922-1923 school year. The society was comprised of forty-four members.

A small pamphlet compiled by Dean Meredith, the Dean of Women, contains prayers and Biblical selections for: "My Neighborly Duty," "The Right Use of Time," "Loyalty," "Essential Beliefs," Profitable Troubles," "Self Discipline," "Prayer," "Enduring Happiness," and "Good Health as a Duty." Miss Margaret Eslinger  kept this little book to remember her membership in the Young Women's Christian Association.

Compiled by the Dean of Women, Josephine Meredith, the Physical Director of the Y.W.C.A, Catharine Shaefer, and the Chairman of the Health Education Committee of the Y.W.C.A, Kathryn Riley. this pamphlet gives advice regarding the "Five Enemies of Health"- "Constipation, Colds, Cramps, Indigestion, and Worry" along with their causes and treatment.

This photo is of the Y.W.C.A. sitting on the porch of Metzger Hall. The women in the image are not identified.

This photo depicts three female Dickinsonians attending the Y.W.C.A. Conference in 1923. Dean Meredith's Scrapbook contains numerous photos of the 1923 conference.

Photograph of the 1923 Young Women's Christian Association on the Metzger Hall Porch. Featured in the photograph: Elizabeth DeMaris (Class of 1923), Louetta Green (Class of 1922), Erma Porteus (Class of 1926), Isabel Ward (Class of 1926), & Mary Elizabeth Chambers (Class of 1924).

Date: 1923-1924

Panhellenic in 1923-1924 consisted of Pi Beta Phi, Chi Omega, Phi Mu, and a local sorority, Zeta Eta Phi. The Consitution regulates the struction of Panhel and also the rules for rushing. During the first week of school, all women participate in a "Little Sister" plan sponsored by the Y.W.C.A. All women in sororities must not reveal their membership during this week.  After this week and prior to rushing, no new girls and present sorority members may associate socially or discuss Greek life. Bids were sent out the first Thursday after Thanksgiving.

Date: April 11, 1923

On April 11, 1923, the minutes from the Women's Student Senate documented that a joint meeting of both the Men's and Women's Senates was held at the chapel. A discussion of the Honor System occurred at the meeting. The Women's Senate passed a motion for the creation of a questionnaire for the senior women to remark on their views of the college's condition.

Date: April 30, 1923

The discussion of new freshman rules at the April 30, 1923 meeting of the Women's Student Senate were documented in the senate's minutes. At the meeting, some of the following rules were suggested: that "there should be no curled hair for the first two weeks...there should be no powder or cosmetics for a certain period...[and that] it should be compulsory that...stockings be worn for a certain length of time..." The minutes mentioned no further action on these rules.

Date: May 1923

A total of 24 students at Dickinson this particular year were either sons or daughters of Dickinsonians.
The break down of sons and daughters was equal.
There were a total of 12 women enrolled whose father (and in the case of Martha Williams - her mother) had been a Dickinsonian.
Olivette Yeingst and Violette Yeingst (daughters of Wilbur M. Yeingst '97) were members of the Senior class. The remaining ten daughters were as follows:

  • Elizabeth R. Bender, class of 1888, did missionary work in Japan for several years before she had to return due to health problems. She went on to take charge of the New York District of the Women's Foreign Missionary Society, whose offices were located at 150 Fifth Avenue NY.
  • Anna M. Geiger Heckman, class of 1897, became the wife of the District Superintent of Harrisburg District, Central Pennsylvania M. E. Conference.
  • Mrs. Mary Love Collins, class of 1902, was the National President of Chi Omega Sorority.

"The Omicron Chapter of Phi Delta Delta, a woman's legal fraternity, was installed at the Dickinson School of Law on May 1."

Date: June 4, 1923

In the 1923 meeting of the Board of Trustees, the issue of club expenses was discussed. In the end, the Trustees decided to divide cost based on gender.

On June 4, 1923, President James Henry Morgan reported that, "physical training for the young women has been inadequate, though we have made good use of what was available." Thus, President Morgan argued that Dickinson College should look into creating a relationship with the recently established Y.W.C.A. in Carlisle. Such a relationship would give female Dickinsonians access to the Y.W.C.A.'s athletic facilities and Director.

On June 4, 1923, the Board of Trustees discussed the number of applicants they received. As opposed to further limiting the number of women at Dickinson College, the Trustees decided to stick by their quota and instead limit the number of both men and women admitted to the school.